Honda HR-V Owners & Service Manuals

Honda HR-V: Component Location Index, Description

COMPONENT LOCATION INDEX

REAR DIFFERENTIAL COMPONENT LOCATION INDEX (AWD)

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

DESCRIPTION

REAR DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION - AWD SYSTEM (AWD)

Overview

Adopts the All Wheel Drive (AWD) as the rear differential. The AWD features a built-in real-time controlling mechanism that distributes the rear wheels a proper torque as needed depending on the rotating difference between front and rear wheels or the engine driving. The hydraulic circuit of the AWD is equipped with a motor-driven oil pump and an electrically-controlled valves, resulting in a wide range of torque controls, improvements in responsiveness, reduction of excessive torque, and compact size/lightening.

Construction

The AWD Differential Assembly consists of a wet-disc clutch assembly, differential, and a hydraulic system. The main components of the wet-disc clutch assembly are as follow:

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Hydraulic Circuit

The main components in the hydraulic circuit are as follows:

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

The AWD control unit receives signals from the PCM, VSA Control Module, Gauge Control Module, and steering angle sensor. These signals are used to calculate the amount of torque to be provided to the rear wheels. The AWD control unit actuates controls on the differential that generates variable hydraulic pressure in the hydraulic circuits. This pressure causes a clutch assembly inside the housing to be applied, delivering variable amounts of power to the rear wheels.

Hydraulic Control System Diagram

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Operation

Driving Power Delivery

A driving power delivered from the propeller shaft is transmitted to the clutch guide and clutch plate. Since the clutch is not engaged when the oil pressure is not generated, the pinion gear is not driven by the propeller shaft.

In this case, a driving power is not transmitted to the rear wheels, but it is only rotated by the vehicle movement. The generated hydraulic pressure presses the pressure piston against the end plate, compressing the clutch discs. This compression reduces the slippage between clutch discs A and B, thus rotating the clutch drum together with the clutch hub.

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Drive power delivered to the propeller shaft is output from the clutch hub to the drive pinion gear, ring gear, differential and rear drive shafts when the clutch is applied. In this situation, drive power is transmitted to the rear wheels.

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

In addition, the clutch drum and the clutch hub are not contacted completely, but linked each other with a maximum of 80% of contacting rate. This slippage reduces the friction caused by a rotating difference between the front and rear.

Hydraulic Control

Torque is distributed to the front and rear wheels by controlling the amount of clutch application in the differential. Clutch application force is controlled through oil pressure created by the oil pump drive motor and a solenoid valve.

By applying pressure and depressurization control, the AWD control unit sets the optimum level of pressure in stages to suit the driving conditions and road conditions. The basic control method involves the hydraulic circuit being pressurized by the motor to a level close to, but generally exceeding, the target pressure calculated from the vehicle conditions and road conditions received by the AWD control unit.

The hydraulic controls in a normal driving condition are as follows:

  • In the pressurization mode, the oil pump driving motor generates a target oil pressure in the hydraulic circuit during a period of time calculated by the AWD control unit. The 1-way valve is opened by the oil pressure and the AWD control unit closes the solenoid valve (energized), thus, the pressure piston squeezes the clutch discs.
  • In the retention mode, if the oil pressure reaches the pressure level set by the AWD control unit, the motor stops pressurizing. The 1-way valve closes and the solenoid valve keeps closed (energized), and the oil pressure generated in the hydraulic circuit is kept as-is. Thus, the pressure piston is fixed in a place and maintains the pressure on the clutch discs.
  • In the depressurization mode, if the AWD control unit determines that it is not necessary to distribute a torque to the rear wheels, it turns on electricity to open the solenoid valve (de-energized), and releases the oil pressure from the hydraulic circuit. Thus, the pressure piston returns back and releases the clutch disc.

Basic Operation

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Operating Modes

The operations of AWD are performed appropriately to meet the driving conditions. The following examples show the AWD performance against several driving conditions.

Accelerating From a Stop on Dry Pavement

When the vehicle is stopped on a dry level surface, the AWD control unit puts the system in Standby Mode. This mode pressurizes the hydraulic system and applies the clutch pressure, and distributes a maximum of 20% of torque to the rear wheels for an initial acceleration. To achieve this, the All Wheel Drive control unit receives information from the VSA system to determine the longitudinal angle of the vehicle. Upon determining the vehicle is on level ground, the AWD control unit activates the oil pump drive motor to pressurize the hydraulic system, then cycles the oil pressure solenoid on and off until the target pressure is met. Two levels of system pressurization can be created, depending on conditions. When the target pressure is achieved, the oil pressure solenoid remains closed to maintain the pressure in the hydraulic circuit until the vehicle begins to accelerate.

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Cruising at Steady Speed on Dry Pavement

When the vehicle is cruising at a steady speed on dry pavement, the AWD control unit deactivates the All Wheel Drive system. The vehicle operates in 2WD mode, helping to increase fuel economy. To achieve this, the AWD control unit receives information from the PCM, VSA and MA-EPS systems to determine the stability of the vehicle. When it determines that the vehicle is traveling at a steady speed and no wheel slippage is occurring, all pressure is released from the hydraulic circuit, enabling 2WD-only operation. This mode continues until the AWD control unit determines that torque needs to be transferred to the rear wheels.

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Front Wheel Slipping on Slick Surface

When the front wheels are slipping, for example on a low friction surface such as wet or icy roads, the AWD control unit receives information from the VSA and MA-EPS systems that the front wheels are slipping. When the slipping of the front wheels occurred, 80% of torque will be transferred to the rear wheels to reduce the load on the front wheels, and to regain vehicle stability. This mode continues until the All Wheel Drive control unit determines that the front wheels are no longer slipping.

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

Accelerating Uphill From a Stop on Dry Pavement

To stabilize the vehicle while driving in the uphill, the AWD control unit transfers more of the available torque to the rear wheels than when driving in the flat road. To achieve this, the AWD control unit receives information from the VSA system to determine the slope where the vehicle is driving. Upon determining this, the AWD control unit activates the oil pump drive motor to pressurize the hydraulic system, then cycles the oil pressure solenoid on and off until the target pressure is reached. The level of pressurization varies depending on the calculated slope the vehicle is driving. The torque transfer to the rear wheels will be controlled at a maximum of 80% depending on driving force. This mode continues until the AWD control unit determines that the vehicle is no longer accelerating uphill.

Differential - Testing & Troubleshooting

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